SANAA, Dec. 16 (Saba) – Dhamar is a city found in Dhamar, Yemen, it is located 14.54 latitude and 44.41 longitude and it is situated at elevation 2421 meters above sea level.
Dhamar has a population of 160,114 making it the biggest city in Dhamar.
Dhamar is named after its ruler Dhamar Ali Yahbur II, King of Saba' & Dhu Raydan & Hadramaut & Yamnit, whose name means "Owner of the order."
Dhamar is situated 100 km to the south of Sana'a, north of Ibb, and west of Al Bayda, Yemen, Its name “Dhamar” goes back to the king of Sheba and Dhuo-Raydan at 15-35 AD. whose name was Dhamar Ali Yahbir II, and whose statue was found at the city of Al-Nakhla Al-Hamra’a ("The Red Palm"). This city is one of the archeological sites that are found near Dhamar.
The temperature in Dhamar city is varied in different seasons (Summer, rainy and winter), the average temperatures range from 10 to 19 °C (50 to 66 °F) in summer, and from 8 to −1 °C (46 to 30 °F) in winter.
The city of Dhamar, in the center of the Dhamar basin, is of ancient origin, it was built by the legendary Himyarite King Dhamar Ali Yahbir II, renowned for restoring the great dam of Ma’rib. Dhamar is the only town in northern Yemen, which is not surrounded by a wall or natural defensive formations; it is just a settlement on the plains, centrally situated with good connections to the nearby governorates, the town has prospered as a Wednesday market and meeting place for tribes living nearby.
This city was one of the famous Arabic and Islamic culture and scientific centers in Yemen, its Great Mosque was built in the period of the caliph Abi-Bakr Al-Sadeek.
The historic period of the South Arabian civilization in Yemen began between the 12th and 10th century BC. Dhamar contributed actively in the march of civilization in Yemen, with ancient monuments dating back to 1000 B.C. at places such as al-Sha’b al-Aswad and Masna’at Marya.
In past times, the people of Dhamar were famous for bringing up horses; the city was an early center of horse-breeding in Arabia, the town is still famous in Yemen for its numerous historical mosques and schools, which are distinguished by their beautiful characteristic architecture in harmony with the colors of its volcano land.
Modern scientific studies have confirmed the existence of human activity at Dhamar since the Neolithic period, starting around 6000 BC and continuing during the following periods through the Bronze Age, the site of the Hammat al-Qa' – 10 km to the east of Ma’bar city – is perhaps the most prominent and significant Bronze Age location in the Arabian peninsula.
During the 2nd century BC, Raydanites established themselves at Zafar, about 50 km south of Dhamar, and they rallied the Himyarite tribes in their fight with Sabaean forces. Dhamar became the strategic place for the Raydanites, by the 2nd century AD Naqil Yislah – 50 km to the north of Dhamar city – was the dividing line between the Sabaeans and the Raydanites under the leadership of the king Yasir Yahsadaq.
Doran Anss: It is about 15 kilometers at the west of Mabear area; located on the north level of the famous mountain AL-Dameagh, it is the center of Anss zone and was the capital of Yemen during the Imam AL-Motwakeel Ala-Allah Ismail Ben AL-Kassem in the 17th century A.D.
The mountain, full of the green farms, was enclosed by a wall until its summit and surrounded by towers and castles that are built with huge stones, all of these ancient ruins are remaining until this day.
There is a large historical mosque built by AL-Motwakeel on the Mount AL-Dameagh, in the middle of this mountain there is a cave overlooking Doran city from the southwest side.
Al-Lassi Bath: This is another steam-vapor bath, lying to the east of Dhamar City, on Al-Lassi citadel at 2800 meters above the sea level, the citadel dates back to the 11th century A.H. Nearby, there are some remains of ancient sulfur mines.
Ani's Ali Bath: This is a natural mineral steam bath, lying northwest of Dhamar City, surrounded by green belt of various fruit farms, this bath is considered one of the well-known mineral steam bath in Yemen and the visitors head for some special seasons in order to hospitalization of many different kinds of diseases.
Beinoon: It is a vestigial city situated to the east of Dhamar city at AL-Hada’a province, Thouban zone, it is one of the archaeological sites whose history goes back to the Hymiarate state.
The most important sight there is Beinoon palace and some ruins of an ancient temple, as well as the two tunnels that are engraved into two mountains for transferring torrents’ water from valley to valley.
As Dhamar city had a great role in the politic and trading life in Yemen, it had a very important historical role in Yemen before the Islamic age, the antique Yemeni engravings mentioned Dhamar city as being a very famous center of the Islamic studies and sciences, and many of the great scientists are attributed to this historical town.
During the 16th century the Ottomans occupied Yemen, and Dhamar became one of the centers of Yemeni opposition to them, this resistance was eventually crowned by expulsion of the Ottomans from Yemen, at the hands of the Qasimi family, who took as their capital the town of Duran, northwest of Dhamar city.
Dhamar endured, as did the other Yemeni governorates, severe hardships during the second Ottoman occupation in the 19th century, and under the Hamid al-Din imams during the 20th century. The latter government was forcefully overthown by the blessed Yemeni revolution, which broke out on 26 September 1962.
Since the Revolution, Dhamar governorate has witnessed a great scientific and cultural renaissance that subsequently was strengthened by the achievement of Yemeni unification, and the triumph of constitutional legitimacy and unity against the forces of succession.
With the advent of Islam, tribes of Dhamar were the first to embrace Islam, and groups of its people traveled north to assure the survival of its new community and to carry it to new lands.
During the period of local states independent of the Abbasid caliphs, the Dhamar region was a center of interest to the competing powers, the governorate and city of Dhamar saw period of florescence, especially during the time of Imam Sharaf al-Din, who erected, between 1541 and 1543, the Madrasah al-Shamsiyyah in Dhamar city; this school was for many centuries a center for diffusion of knowledge and culture.
Mona Zaid Written by